Thursday, March 12, 2020
Cold War Timeline The Cold War was fought in the aftermath of World War Two, from the collapse of the wartime alliance between the Anglo-American led Allies and the USSR to the collapse of the USSR itself, with the most common dates for these identified as 1945 to 1991. Of course, like most historical events, the seeds from which the war grew were planted much earlier, and this timeline starts with the creation of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first Soviet nation in 1917. Pre-World War Two 1917 Ã October: Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. 1918-1920 Ã Unsuccessful Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War. 1919 Ã March 15: Lenin creates the Communist International (Comintern) to promote international revolution. 1922 Ã December 30: Creation of the USSR. 1933 Ã United States begins diplomatic relations with USSR for the first time. World War Two 1939 Ã August 23: Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (Ã¢â¬ËNon-Aggression Pact): Germany and Russia agree to divide Poland. Ã September: Germany and Russia invade Poland. 1940 Ã June 15 Ã¢â¬â 16: USSR occupies Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania citing security concerns. 1941 Ã June 22: Operation Barbarossa begins: the German invasion of Russia. Ã November: US begins lend-lease to USSR. Ã December 7: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor causing the US to enter the war. Ã December 15 Ã¢â¬â 18: Diplomatic mission to Russia reveals Stalin hopes to recover gains made in the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. 1942 Ã December 12: Soviet-Czech alliance agreed; Czechs agree to co-operate with the USSR after the war. 1943 Ã February 1: Siege of Stalingrad by Germany ends with Soviet victory. Ã April 27: USSR breaks off relations with Polish government-in-exile over arguments about the Katyn Massacre. Ã May 15: Comintern is closed to appease Soviet allies. Ã July: Battle of Kursk ends with Soviet victory, arguably the turning point of the war in Europe. Ã November 28 Ã¢â¬â December 1: Tehran Conference: Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill meet. 1944 Ã June 6: D-Day: Allied forces land successfully in France, opening a second front which liberates Western Europe before Russia needs to. Ã July 21: Having Ã¢â¬ËliberatedÃ¢â¬â¢ east Poland, Russia sets up the Committee of National Liberation in Lublin to govern it. Ã August 1 Ã¢â¬â October 2: Warsaw Uprising; Polish rebels attempt to overthrow Nazi rule in Warsaw; Red Army sits back and allows it to be crushed to destroy the rebels. Ã August 23: Romania signs armistice with Russia following their invasion; a coalition government is formed. Ã September 9: Communist coup in Bulgaria. Ã October 9 - 18: Moscow Conference. Churchill and Stalin agree percentage Ã¢â¬Ëspheres of influenceÃ¢â¬â¢ in Eastern Europe. Ã December 3: Conflict between British and pro-Communist Greek forces in Greece. 1945 Ã January 1: USSR Ã¢â¬ËrecognisesÃ¢â¬â¢ their communist puppet government in Poland as the provisional government; US and UK refuse to do so, preferring the exiles in London. Ã February 4-12: Yalta summit between Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin; promises are given to support democratically elected governments. Ã April 21: Agreements signed between newly Ã¢â¬ËliberatedÃ¢â¬â¢ communist Eastern nations and USSR to work together. Ã May 8: Germany surrenders; end of World War Two in Europe. Late 1940s 1945 Ã March: Communist-dominated coup in Romania. Ã July-August: Potsdam Conference between US, UK, and USSR. Ã July 5: US and UK recognize communist-dominated Polish government after it allows some members of the Government-in-exile to join. Ã August 6: The US drops the first atomic bomb, on Hiroshima. 1946 Ã February 22: George Kennan sends the Long Telegram advocating Containment. Ã March 5: Churchill gives his Iron Curtain Speech. Ã April 21: Social Unity Party formed in Germany on StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. 1947 Ã January 1: Anglo-American Bizone formed in Berlin, angers USSR. Ã March 12: Truman Doctrine announced. Ã June 5: Marshall Plan aid program Announced. Ã October 5: Cominform Founded to organize international communism. Ã December 15: London Foreign MinistersÃ¢â¬â¢ Conference breaks up without agreement. 1948 Ã February 22: Communist Coup in Czechoslovakia. Ã March 17: Brussels Pact Signed between UK, France, Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg to organize a mutual defense. Ã June 7: Six Power Conference recommends a West German Constituent Assembly. Ã June 18: New currency introduced in the Western Zones of Germany. Ã June 24: Berlin Blockade Begins. 1949 Ã January 25: Comecon, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, created to organize Eastern bloc economies. Ã April 4: North Atlantic Treaty signed: NATO formed. Ã May 12: Berlin Blockade lifted. Ã May 23: Ã¢â¬ËBasic LawÃ¢â¬â¢ approved for Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): Bizone merges with French zone to form a new state. Ã May 30: PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Congress approves German Democratic Republic Constitution in East Germany. Ã August 29: USSR detonates the first atomic bomb. Ã September 15: Adenauer becomes first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. Ã October: The Communist PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China proclaimed. Ã October 12: German Democratic Republic (GDR) formed in East Germany. 1950s 1950 Ã April 7: NSC-68 finalized in the US: advocates a more active, military, policy of containment and causes a large increase in defense spending. Ã June 25: Korean War begins. Ã October 24: Pleven Plan approved by France: rearmed West German soldiers to be part of a European Defence Community (EDC). 1951 Ã April 18: European Coal and Steel Community Treaty signed (The Schuman Plan). 1952 Ã March 10: Stalin proposes a united, but neutral, Germany; rejected by the West. Ã May 27: European Defence Community (EDC) treaty signed by Western nations. 1953 Ã March 5: Stalin dies. Ã June 16-18: Unrest in the GDR, suppressed by Soviet troops. Ã July: Korean War ends. 1954 Ã August 31: France rejects the EDC. 1955 Ã May 5: FRG becomes a sovereign state; joins NATO. Ã May 14: Eastern Communist nations sign theÃ Warsaw Pact, a military alliance. Ã May 15: State Treaty between forces occupying Austria: they withdraw and make it a neutral state. Ã September 20: GDR recognized as a sovereign state by USSR. FRG announces theÃ Hallstein DoctrineÃ in response. 1956 Ã February 25: Khrushchev beginsÃ De-StalinizationÃ by attacking Stalin in a speech at 20th Party Congress. Ã June: Unrest in Poland. Ã October 23 Ã¢â¬â November 4: Hungarian Uprising crushed. 1957 Ã March 25: Treaty of Rome signed, creating the European Economic Community with the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. 1958 Ã November 10: Start of Second Berlin crisis: Khrushchev calls for a peace treaty with the two German states to settle borders and for Western nations to leave Berlin. Ã November 27: The Berlin Ultimatum issued by Khrushchev: Russia gives West six months to solve Berlin situation and withdraw their troops or it will hand East Berlin over to East Germany. 1959 Ã January: Communist government under Fidel Castro set up in Cuba. 1960s 1960 Ã May 1: USSR shoots down US U-2 spy plane over Russian territory. Ã May 16-17: Paris Summit closes after Russia pulls out over U-2 affair. 1961 Ã August 12/13:Ã Berlin WallÃ built as east-west borders closed in Berlin and GDR. 1962 Ã October Ã¢â¬â November: The Cuban Missile Crisis brings the world to the brink of nuclear war. 1963 Ã August 5: Test Ban treaty between UK, USSR, and US limits nuclear testing. France and China reject it and develop their own weapons. 1964 Ã October 15: Khrushchev removed from power. 1965 Ã February 15: The US begins bombing of Vietnam; by 1966 400,000 US troops are in the country. 1968 Ã August 21-27: Crushing of Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. Ã July 1: Non-Proliferation Treaty signed by UK, USSR, and US: agree not to assist non-signatories in gaining nuclear weapons. This treaty is the first evidence ofÃ dÃ ©tente-era cooperationÃ during the Cold War.Ã Ã November:Ã Brezhnev DoctrineÃ Outlined. 1969 Ã September 28: Brandt becomes Chancellor of FRG, continues the policy ofÃ OstpolitikÃ developed from his position as Foreign Minister. 1970s 1970 Ã Start of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between US and USSR. Ã August 12: USSR-FRG Moscow Treaty: both recognize each others territories and agree to only peaceful methods of border change. Ã December 7: Warsaw Treaty between FRG and Poland: both recognize each others territories, agree to only peaceful methods of border change and increased trade. 1971 Ã September 3: Four Power Treaty on Berlin between US, UK, France and USSR over access from West Berlin to FRG and relation of West Berlin to FRG. 1972 Ã May 1: SALT I treaty signed (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks). Ã December 21: Basic Treaty between FRG and GDR: FRG gives up Hallstein Doctrine, recognizes GDR as a sovereign state, both to have seats at UN. 1973 Ã June: Prague Treaty between FRG and Czechoslovakia. 1974 Ã July: SALT II negotiations begin. 1975 Ã August 1: Helsinki Agreement/Accord/Ã¢â¬â¢Final ActÃ¢â¬â¢ signed between US, Canada and 33 European States including Russia: states the Ã¢â¬ËinviolabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ of frontiers, gives principles for state peaceful interaction, co-operation in economics and science as well as humanitarian issues. 1976 Ã Soviet SS-20 medium-range missiles stationed in Eastern Europe. 1979 Ã June: SALT II treaty signed; never ratified by the US Senate. Ã December 27: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. 1980s 1980 Ã December 13: Martial law in Poland to crush the Solidarity movement. 1981 Ã January 20: Ronald Reagan becomes US President. 1982 Ã June: Start of START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) in Geneva. 1983 Ã Pershing and Cruise missiles placed in West Europe. Ã March 23: Announcement of the US Ã¢â¬ËStrategic Defense InitiativeÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËStar WarsÃ¢â¬â¢. 1985 Ã March 12: Gorbachev becomes the leader of USSR. 1986 Ã October 2: USSR-USA summit at Reykjavik. 1987 Ã December: USSR-US summit as Washington: US and USSR agree to remove medium-range missiles from Europe. 1988 Ã February: Soviet troops begin to pull out of Afghanistan. Ã July 6: In a speech to the UN, Gorbachev repudiates theÃ Brezhnev Doctrine, encourages free elections and ends the Arms Race, in practice ending the Cold War; democracies emerge across Eastern Europe. Ã December 8: INF Treaty, includes removal of medium-range missiles from Europe. 1989 Ã March: Multi-candidate elections in the USSR. Ã June: Elections in Poland. Ã September: Hungary allows GDR Ã¢â¬ËholidaymakersÃ¢â¬â¢ through the border with West. Ã November 9: Berlin Wall falls. 1990s 1990 Ã August 12: GDR announces a desire to merge with FRG. Ã September 12: Two Plus Four treaty signed by FRG, GDR. US, UK, Russia, and France cancels remaining rights of former occupying powers in FRG. Ã October 3: German Reunification. 1991 Ã July 1: START Treaty signed by US and USSR reducing nuclear weapons. Ã December 26: USSR dissolved.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Understanding advertising media - Essay Example A small conclusion follows at the end of the paper as a summary to the detailed discussion.Internet defines a small network provided that the 'i' is not capitalized. "The Internet" however, defines the Internet of internets and is the immense global network spread all over the globe. A formal definition can be summarized as "a global networks that links thousands of computers by data lines and wireless systems".According to the Wikipedia web site the predecessor of the Internet is called "ARPAnet" (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), and was originally employed as one can easily conclude for military purposes by the U.S in 1969. The Internet catalyst today, the core of the Internet in other words, is the NFS (National Science Foundation).Even though the Internet provides a lot more services other than those known to the wider audience such as Telnet and FTP, the paper focuses to the advertising medium of the Internet, namely the WWW (WorldWide Web). The WWW is a hypermedia in formation system that links computer-based resources around the world. That is includes a lot more than the familiar to most of us microcomputers, namely servers and mainframes and other sharing resources or intangible resources liek database systems that reside in the electronic mediums we are familiar with. Such resources become available to us through the web browsers. Browsers enable words or icon to display text, video, graphics and sounds on computer screen. The most famous browser to most of us is more likely the Internet Explorer but others like Opera and Mozilla have been catching up in popularity. 90% of the users and using the Internet for email exchange and 77% and 69% for general information and surfing respectively. 46% only are using it for their work and 27% and 26% for stocks' quotes and job searching respectively. Trading and banking are low in the pyramid with 12% and 7% respectively. Apparently the Internet has not become integrated to every day activities yet and its potential remains unknown to the wider public possibly due to ignorance or fear due to inexperience with its working and safety mechanisms. The Internet facilities are mostly used by higher education level persons, at a younger age of 18,5 and high level income. Details of Internet users' activities can be viewed at the Stanford University Web Site at Advertising Format Advertising techniques employed are the banners displayed on web pages, the key words entered in search engines, sponsors for web sites and emails send to users, and viral marketing with the use of email addresses a person acquires through the recipient lines of an email. Other common techniques include mobile marketing and a variation like PPS, Kiosk and Podcasts. The most famous search engine is inarguably Google. With ongoing update on any moment, the Google web site enables chat with MSN, AOL, and Yahoo instant essaging system without any program or Java applet. Banner rates are set on 5 CPM. The second most popular search engine is Yahoo! with ongoing frequency at any moment that does not charge the customers, while more than 80% of users reach UK Online consumers through partners including: MSN, Yahoo, Lycos, AltaVista and others. There are of course of rates for this service. Another advertising technique has found applicability through the most popular chat client program. MSN Messenger
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Jobs and Guides for Counseling - Essay Example Counselors fail to discharge their duties to full fruition and satisfaction as the average number of students assigned to them nationwide is about 477 to 1. This has resulted in the increasing number of school drop outs due to lack of proper guidance and care; very often younger children are not provided sufficient care. The duties of the counselor vary from preparing students to "start thinking about careers, build communication skills and develop healthy attitudes about themselves and their peers" at the elementary school level to assisting "students with study habits, financial aid, college recommendations, class schedules, transitions between grades and high-stakes tests". At times counselors also have to tackle psychological imbalances and disorders associated with teenage pregnancy and love affairs. It is sad to note that the school budgets very often undermine the significance and role of counselors as they give more priority to other areas like "helping children with disabilities and raising achievement in the poorest schools'. The article thus throws light on the fact that the counselors under the present system are unable to establish personal relationships with the students which is the key factor in the counseling process. The role of counselors can never be undermined as they have the capacity to determine the destiny of the nation by molding the personalities of the prospective citizens. Under favorable conditions, counselors can prove themselves to be reformers who can concentrate on the over all growth of the students and help students to see through peer pressure, family problems and other psychological and mental distractions. For this there should be special funding from the part of the government and there should be ample provisions for counseling in the school bu dgets. Besides, counseling to be effective, the proportion of the number of students per counselor should be reduced so that the counselor can have intimate personal contact and relationship with the students. One of the major objectives of counseling in schools is to enable students to choose the best career that suits their innate taste and talents. For this, students need to be trained well to present themselves confidently while attending job interviews. Personal questions that are not strictly job related often make candidates uncomfortable and the article 'Job Hunting These Questions Are Illegal' considers such questions as illegal as they are 'discriminatory'. According to the author, these illegal questions can vary from family details, sexual preference and marriage status, racial and ethnical origins, health, criminal records to physical disabilities. Students should be guided well to handle these circumstances when they go out of the schools and it is the duty of the counselor to instill a feeling of self esteem in the minds of the learners irrespective of his/her family background, ethnic origin or personal health related limitations. They should be taught that they have equal employment opportunity like all other well to do candidates. Both the articles are closely related as they deal with the importance of counseling. The second article is a continuation of the first as it develops one of the areas that the counselors and the employers need to pay attention when it comes to job hunting and selection of candidates. The articles
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The reason salmons are overfished Essay Description: Ã Ã Ã Preferred language style: English (U.S.).Ã This is for the resource economy class. The subject is `Why salmons are overfished and how to protect it. ` There are no special instructions. I want u guys write down the explanation of salmons first and get to the subject then. Thank u. Ã Salmon is a unique fish which follows a very unique lifecycle.Ã It has an elongated body and is covered with rounded and small scales.Ã Between the tail fin and the dorsal fin, a fleshy fin is present. Ã It belongs to the same family of fishes that certain other fishes such as trout, whitefish, etc, belong (Salmonidae).Ã Salmon fishes can grow to a length of 86 cms and can weigh about 3.6 kilograms.Ã Salmon is caught for its meat and also as game.Ã Salmon usually feed on smaller fishes, aquatic life and insects. The salmon are migratory in nature and hence are found in sea water and in fresh water.Ã It is usually found only in the northern hemisphere.Ã The life cycle of the salmon has really been unique in nature.Ã The female adult Salmon lay their eggs in rivers, ponds or lakes.Ã The spawn develop in the fresh water and slowly the young salmon migrate to the sea water.Ã In the sea and the oceans, the salmon grow up.Ã Once the Salmon are ready to breed, they move upstream from the seas into the rivers and towards inlands.Ã If the salmon cannot find their way to the sea, as the water body may be landlocked, they may grow and develop in the lake or pond it (MSN Encarta, 2007 NMFS, 2008). Ã The Salmon that grows up in the ocean would turn up exactly in the same place that they were born and grew up.Ã In order to reach the place of their birth, the salmon would have to travel upstream several hundreds or thousands of miles.Ã This is one of the unique characteristics of the Salmon, and only in certain areas of the world, would it be possible to move from a sea into a lake found inland.Ã Hence, Salmon are found only in certain parts of the world.Ã Another unique thing of the Salmon fish is that the adults spawn only once in their lifetime. Following their spawning, the adult male dies and this process is known as Ã¢â¬ËsemelparityÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã Depending on the characteristics of the fresh water the Salmon would be thriving in, individual characteristics are produced.Ã The juvenile Salmon that is actually produced would spend about one to three years in the more friendly fresh water lakes, rivers and ponds.Ã After this period, they would move into the oceans and the seas through the downstream of the river.Ã The female salmon usually produce about 3 to 5 nests during the season.Ã Following mating, the eggs hatch within 42 to 60 days (MSN Encarta, 2007 NMFS, 2008). Ã The young salmon fry that is produced would feed on the river aquatic life and plankton.Ã The juvenile salmon have parr marks on its body, which it would shortly lose after it enters the oceans.Ã They appear black in color and have white abdomen.Ã Initially, the salmon fish can process freshwater, and once they enter the sea, the metabolic processes in the salmon would change in such a way that it can now process seawater.Ã Even the mechanisms in the gills would change so that it can breathe in oxygen in seawater. Ã In the rivers, the salmon would be feeding on plankton and other aquatic life.Ã However, in the oceans, the salmon would be feeding on squids, marine fishes, amphipods, etc.Ã The Salmon would be remaining in the oceans for a period of 2 to 3 years.Ã It is usually beyond the fourth year that the salmon would be returning through the rivers to the land to spawn.Ã Several species of salmon would be spending their entire lifetime in the rivers and the lakes, and would not actually migrate into the seas. Ã Such species are known as Ã¢â¬Ënon-anadromous typesÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã Sometimes although the salmon can actually migrate to the oceans during their life, some of the juveniels would remain back.Ã They would mate with the anadromous types.Ã The initial few years of the lifetime of the salmon is spent in the lakes for growing and developing.Ã Later they migrate to the seas and spend about half of their lifetime there.Ã In the last year or few months of their lifetime, the salmon would migrate from the sea to the place of birth and would spawn there (MSN Encarta, 2007 NMFS, 2008). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During the spawning period, the salmon develop a drab color.Ã However, certain species of salmon may develop brighter hues.Ã In the mating season, the salmon have a hooked snout and their backs appear to be humped.Ã Usually, the salmon prefer shallow water which contain rocks and gravel for spawning, as it offers the eggs a huge amount of protection from predators.Ã The water in these Shallow River or lakes needs to flow rapidly.Ã The mating process of the salmon is very unique indeed.Ã One of the parents makes a nest or Ã¢â¬ËreddÃ¢â¬â¢ for the fertilized eggs to develop.Ã The female lays down the unfertilized eggs in the bottom of the nest.Ã The male then releases the sperms over these eggs. Following this, the female digs up the bottom of the riverbed to ensure that the earth covers up the eggs.Ã During the entire process of migrating to the river from the seas, building the nests and mating, the salmon would not consume any food.Ã Depending on the temperature, species and the flow of the water, the eggs of the salmon would hatch anywhere between 40 to 60 days.Ã Once the eggs of the salmon hatch, the newborn known as Ã¢â¬ËalevinsÃ¢â¬â¢ stay in the nest and feed on the nutrients present in the yolk sacs attached to their bodies.Ã Once these nutrients get exhausted, the young salmon are known as Ã¢â¬ËfryÃ¢â¬â¢ and slowly come out from the nests. They now feed on small aquatic plants, insects and debris found in the riverbeds.Ã The fry grow and develop in the rivers and develop vertical bars on the sides of their bodies that help in camouflage (parr).Ã When the juvenile salmon are about to begin their journeys into the sea, they become bright silver in color and are known as Ã¢â¬ËsmoltsÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã They would spend about 2 years in the oceans where they become sexually mature in order to reproduce.Ã Then they would begin their journey upstream (MSN Encarta, 2007). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are slight amount of differences in the salmon found in the Pacific Ocean and in the ones found in the Atlantic Ocean.Ã The Pacific salmon would not return to the oceans after spawning once, but the Atlantic salmon would return upstream to their place of birth every year, breed and then return back into the ocean.Ã The breeding season for the Atlantic salmon is October to November.Ã An Atlantic salmon can live for up to 4 years, whereas a Pacific salmon can live for 4 to 5 years.Ã An Atlantic salmon would weigh 4 to 6 kgs in weight, and a Pacific salmon would weigh 7 to 11 kgs in weight (MSN Encarta, 2007). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Salmon are caught in fresh waters and in sea waters for their meat, both on a small scale and on a large scale.Ã Fishing corporations use nets in order to catch the Salmon during the spawning season.Ã This may vary from one geographic location to another.Ã Different species of salmon also migrate during different seasons of the year in order to spawn.Ã Huge salmon fishing activities go on along the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of North America.Ã More than 60, 000 humans work in the Salmon fishing industry and more than one billion is generated as revenue.Ã Some of the countries that are involved in the Salmon fishing business include USA, Canada, Britain, Russia, Japan, Norway and Denmark. Ã These fisheries also help to grow and develop the young salmon in artificial hatcheries.Ã These young salmon are collected from the nests and are incubated in the hatcheries.Ã They are then released into the rivers ahead of time.Ã The hatcheries offer protection for the young salmon from their natural predators.Ã However, the artificial salmon have a poor genetic variety as compared to their counterparts which are breed in the natural environment.Ã This can make them less resistant to disease, environment hazards and genetic diseases (MSN Encarta, 2007). However, there are several issues concerning the salmon currently, as it is being overfished in several parts of the world.Ã 50 years back, more than 2.5 million to 5 million brood salmon existed in the oceans.Ã In 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, about 800, 000 existed, which shrunk to 300, 000 by 1996.Ã In the year 2007, only about 80, 000 remain the oceans.Ã As Salmon spend a greater proportion of their lives in fresh waters, they are a great risk that they could be overfished and thus become extinct.Ã Several states in the US and Canada are considering to enlist the Salmon fish as endangered or threatened under their individual Endangered Species Statues. Further, the salmon that are in the spawning process are specifically targeted as they present in the fresh waters during this period.Ã As the spawning salmon are targeted, there is a greatest risk that the species is in a great danger of not multiplying.Ã In the Sacramento River, the Chinook Salmon were very common, growing and multiplying in huge quantities.Ã However, today, they have almost disappeared from their natural habitat.Ã The regional fisheries have actually invested more than 150 million dollars in order to save the species, but nothing can be done to save the Salmon in several parts of the Sacramento River.Ã The government and other organizations need to act fast if anything can be done to save the salmon. People feel that either too many Salmon are being removed from the river at any given time or that the Salmon are being removed at a wrong point of time.Ã The remaining fish that may exist in the river are at the risk of being attacked with disease or from predators.Ã However, some fisherman considers that the problems lie in the ocean itself that may be providing conditions unfavorable to the Salmon.Ã Some fisherman also considers that Salmon are often sucked into the irrigation tubes and irrigation canals of several irrigation projects that provide water for agricultural purposes. The problem could also lie in the fact that the oceans, rivers, lakes and ponds are much more polluted than they were actually were a few decades back.Ã The Chinook salmon is actually protected by Local rules and regulations In San Francisco region.Ã A Salmon would also require proper nutrition and food in order to survive the journey to the sea.Ã Scientists feel that a drop in several aquatic and marine lives can directly affect the salmon. The ocean currents that actually bring in plankton and krill required for the salmon have gone out of tune since 2005.Ã In 2005, several salmon which actually entered the oceans have actually died due to starvation.Ã In a study conducted in San Francisco, it was found that only 4 out of the 200 salmon reached the oceans (that is about 2 %).Ã Several dams and irrigations projects have actually ruined the path of the salmon and have made them more susceptible to predators (Felicity Barringer, 2008, William K. Stevens, 1999, Ian Main, 2006). Some of the reasons as to why the salmon are reducing in number could be as follows:- There has been a sudden increase in the amount of commercial, industrial and recreational overfishing.Ã These seem to be a major threat to the salmon as often the young ones and the spawning ones are caught.Ã However, fishing can be regulated and is within the control by jurisdiction. Aquaculture has been conducted in order to save the species of extinction by raising them in a controlled environment and releasing them when they are grown up.Ã However, often fish which are susceptible to diseases and which can spread infectious and genetic diseases to other fishes are produced and released. Irrigations projects could hamper the progress of the salmon from their birth place to the sea and vice-versa.Ã Salmon can often not find their way home from the oceans.Ã Besides, several salmon may fall prey to several predators on the way to the oceans.Ã In the city of Washington itself, more than 1000 irrigation projects hamper the progress of salmon.Ã In certain areas fish ladders have been introduced to help the fish through their natural course.Ã However, in the process several fishes have become injured and are unable to continue with their onward journey. Several forest operations have caused pollutions of the rivers.Ã Slit from several projects have made the rivers dirty and uninhabitable.Ã Trees have been removed near several rivers, making it difficult fro the salmon to bear the temperatures of the water. Farming and ranching activities have added further insult to the problem of salmons.Ã Livestock have disturbed aquatic life and farming activities have changed the quality of the water found in rivers. Mining the riverbeds for gravel has caused a lot of problems for the salmon.Ã The nest containing the developing eggs and alevins has been disturbed.Ã Rivers are often polluted from such activities. Several cities developing near important rivers have created a lot of problems for the salmon.Ã Waste water from homes and industries has polluted the river water making it difficult for the salmon to survive.Ã River water is often diverted to homes and industries for use, thus drying up the rivers. Artificial salmon hatcheries are also causing problems for the salmon.Ã Hatcheries usually collect male and female adult salmon, remove their sperms and unfertilized eggs, and artificially fertilize the eggs.Ã The eggs are then raised artificially and young fry are produced.Ã These fry may be released into the environment.Ã However, some of the fish are returned to the hatchery unknowingly.Ã This can cause several problems in the quality of salmon that are ultimately produced. Several other species such as muscles, crabs, aquatic plants, weeds, etc are competing with the salmon for spaces in lakes, rivers, and sea. Several aquatic lives that are protected are multiplying at uncontrollable rates, and directly feed on the salmon, thus affecting the numbers left in the oceans. Global warming also seems to be a problem for the salmon, as they usually prefer cooler waters for breeding and spawning. Through pollution and other activities in the rivers, the levels of oxygen are reducing, making it difficult for the salmon to survive. In Several places in the world, such as Greenland and even in parts of Canada, the temperatures have drooped during severely during winter times, making it more difficult for the salmon to survive in the rivers and the seas. The population of seabirds has increased which are constant predators for salmon. (The Oregonian, 2008, Felicity Barringer, 2008, Ian Main, 2006) Protection of Salmons need to be done involving several organizations including NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s, Governmental organizations, local groups, tribalÃ¢â¬â¢s, etc.Ã Besides, resources have to be allocated at very stages to help recover the populations of salmons.Ã A separate project strategy should be developed by various stakeholders for saving the salmon.Ã This project strategy should have certain goals which including saving the number of the existing adult and juvenile salmons.Ã The project should aim at reaching a particular target within a specified timeframe. The targets of the project should be achievable.Ã Various stakeholders and organizations should exhibit a collaborative effort.Ã Immense planning and sharing of responsibilities and roles is required.Ã Options should also be available in case a path is not feasible.Ã Activities in order to m monitor the events taking place, determining the outcome of the project, developing a modified strategy, etc, also need to be determined.Ã Some of the measures that may be required in order to protect the salmon include:- Protecting the existent salmon adult and juvenile populations Protecting areas and forests near the rivers and lakes Imposing rules and regulations to protect the salmon Working with wildlife and fisheries groups Using research in breeding and hatchery techniques Having irrigation projects that would not affect the salmon population Using genetic engineering in hatcheries Collaborative efforts from state government, central government, local groups, NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s, tribal groups, etc Developing reforms in the hatcheries (Dave G. Butcher, 2001, Madrona, 2000, James L. Connaughton, 2006) Ã Ã Ã References: Council on Environmental Quality (1999). Ã¢â¬ËPresident Clinton and Vice President Gore Protecting Pacific Salmon.Ã¢â¬ The White House, 3 May 2008.Ã http://environmentalcommons.org/salmon.html Dave G. Butcher (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Protecting Our Salmon.Ã¢â¬ British Columbia University. 3 May 2008. http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/technology/sampunits/salmon.pdf Felicity Barringer (17 Mar 2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Chinook Salmon Vanish Without a Trace.Ã¢â¬ NY Times. 3 May 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/17/science/earth/17salmon.html Ian Main (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Fish FateÃ¢â¬âMajor Reasons Salmon Are in Trouble.Ã¢â¬ Ian Main. 3 May 2008. http://www.fishfirst.org/picts/documents/JLC_Salmon_Speech_1_25_06.pdf James L. Connaughton (2006). Columbia River Salmon Recovery: A Comprehensive and Collaborative Management Strategy.Ã¢â¬ White House Council on Environmental Quality. 3 May 2008. http://www-tc.pbs.org/emptyoceans/educators/activities/docs/Salmon-Scavenger-Hunt-fish-fate.pdf Madrona (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"A Shared Strategy for Recovery of Salmon in Puget Sound.Ã¢â¬ Draft Shared Strategy. 3 May 2008. http://www.sharedsalmonstrategy.org/files/SharedStrategyDraft10.20.00.pdf MSN Encarta. Ã¢â¬Å"Salmon (fish).Ã¢â¬ Microsoft. 3 May 2008. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558965_2/Salmon_(fish).html NMFS. Ã¢â¬Å"Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).Ã¢â¬ NOAA Fisheries. 3 May 2008.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/fish/sockeyesalmon.htm The Oregonian (17 Mar 2008). Ã¢â¬Å"The salmon crisis arrives.Ã¢â¬ The Oregonian. 3 May 2008. http://www.oregonlive.com/editorials/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/editorial/12055443169430.xmlcoll=7 William K. Stevens (14 September 1999). Ã¢â¬Å"As a Species Vanishes, No One Can Say Why.Ã¢â¬ William K. Stevens. 3 May 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/091499sci-animal-salmon.html More Information: http://www.grinningplanet.com/2005/06-07/overfishing-article.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/10/3/l_103_02.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/769646.stm
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Bans on Cigarette Advertising Does NOT Stop Smoking Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since 1971, the cigarette industry has not been allowed to advertise on radio and television. However, the ban has not worked as well as it was planned to work. The reasons are that advertisements are not the primary reason that teens take up smoking. Another reason is that the industry has gotten around the ban by using forms of hidden advertising and corporate sponsorship. The industry has also heavily relied on the print media to advertise its product. Smoking has become influential due to many different forms of advertising. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Up until 1971, cigarettes had been advertised like any other consumer product, but health concerns led to a government-imposed ban on broadcast advertising. Ã¢â¬Å"July 27, 1965, Congress approved the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act. The Federal Cigarette Labeling Act and Advertising Act was passed to establish a comprehensive program to deal with cigarette labeling and advertisingÃ¢â¬ (Holak 220). Ã¢â¬Å"This law made it impossible for any person to manufacture, import or package cigarettes without the following statement clearly labeled on the box: Caution: Cigarette Smoking May Be Hazardous To Your HealthÃ¢â¬ (Altman 95). Any person or company that was found guilty of violating this Act upon conviction was subject to a fine of not more then ten thousand dollars. Cigarettes manufactured or packaged for export form the United States were not required to label this. The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act took effect on January 1, 1 996. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Four years later, Congress approved another Act: the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1996. There were two major changes. First, the statement required on cigarette packages was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined That Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous To Your HealthÃ¢â¬ (Altman 97). Second, it stated that after January 1, 1971 it shall be unlawful to advertise cigarettes on any medium of electronic communication. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fifteen years later, Congress approved the comprehensive Smoking Education Act. This Act was yet another amendment to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act. Once again the statement required that all cigarette packages to be changed. The packages must now have one of the following labels: Ã¢â¬Å"SURGEON GENERALÃ¢â¬â¢S WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, And May Complicate PregnancyÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"SURGEON GENERALÃ¢â¬â¢S WARNING: Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks To Your HealthÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"SURGEON GENERALÃ¢â¬â¢S WARNING: Smoking By Pregnant Women May Result In Fetal Injury, Premature Birth, And Low Birth WeightÃ¢â¬ and lastly Ã¢â¬Å"SURGEON GENERALÃ¢â¬â¢S WARNING: Cigarette Smoke Contains Carbon MonoxideÃ¢â¬ (Brann 10).
Monday, January 13, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Nice glow,Ã¢â¬ Bastien told me when he answered the door the following afternoon. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. Tell me about it.Ã¢â¬ I traipsed into his house wearing the Tabitha body, and pulled up a stool at his kitchen counter. He handed me a Mountain Dew from the refrigerator. Ã¢â¬Å"Why so glum? Couldn't have been all that bad.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was okay. In that sleazy, backroom sort of way. Seth came over afterward and couldn't stop telling me how pretty I was.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Of course he did.Ã¢â¬ Bastien was sporting a glow of his own today. Ã¢â¬Å"How could he help it? He's a weak mortal, just like they all are.Ã¢â¬ I ignored the jibe and took down half the can in one gulp. Ã¢â¬Å"On the topic of Ã¢â¬Ëweak mortals,' how'd your football game go?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ridiculously boring. Bill must have fantastic speech writers because his conversation is on the same level as that cupboard's over there. But, on the bright side, I did talk to Dana several times, and I think I repaired the damage you did.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ye gods, will you get over this? I didn't do anything. You have no one to blame for that but yourself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, I didn't fall down the stairs. Anyway, I took your advice and played sympathetic brother. She really seemed to go for it. ExceptÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Except what?Ã¢â¬ He frowned, blue eyes perplexed. Ã¢â¬Å"She seems to like me well enough. She asks about my job, she asks about you. But something's weird. I just don't feel likeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Like she's going to throw herself at you any time soon? Huh. I never would have guessed.Ã¢â¬ His expression hardened, doubts banished. Ã¢â¬Å"It's just a matter of time, that's all. Like that convent in Brussels. Remember how well that turned out?Ã¢â¬ I grinned. Ã¢â¬Å"Just a matter of time. Sure. So what are your plans today?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing. I'll probably go out later, but now I'm just sort of hanging around. Mitch is supposed to be at work, after all.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, let's sneak you out and go see a movie or something.Ã¢â¬ Frankly, I was eager to do something semi-fun. I had finally made it to my day off, and it hadn't come a moment too soon. The only thing that bothered me was not knowing what had happened at the bookstore when Ã¢â¬â or rather if Ã¢â¬â Doug came in this morning. If Warren or Paige had been around, they might have banned him for a while. But I certainly didn't have that power, and I hated to lose the coverage anyway. I'd finally resorted to calling Janice, telling her to ring my cell immediately if there were any repeat problems. I hadn't heard anything so far. Bastien allowed himself grudging interest in a movie. Ã¢â¬Å"Anything good playing?Ã¢â¬ The doorbell rang before we could check. Ã¢â¬Å"Geez, Bas. It's like Grand Central Station whenever I'm here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Probably a Jehovah's Witness,Ã¢â¬ he decided, checking out the door invisibly. Ã¢â¬Å"Huh. It's Jody. Wonder what she wants.Ã¢â¬ I supposed Dana visiting would have been more serendipitous, but I found Jody's presence a relief. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, let her go. You're supposed to be at work.Ã¢â¬ He nudged me. Ã¢â¬Å"You answer.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure. Make up some reason to be here. She's chummy with Dana. You can do some reconnaissance.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, for goodness Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" The doorbell rang again, and Bastien looked at me pleadingly. I had a good opinion of Jody, but I didn't like him mixing me up in his affairs. Grumbling, I went to the door. Maybe she was just dropping off more baked goods or something, I thought. Her face burst into a grin upon seeing me. Ã¢â¬Å"I was hoping it was you! I thought I recognized the Passat.Ã¢â¬ I smiled back at her. Ã¢â¬Å"Good memory. Did you need Mitch? He's at work.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, not really. I just saw the car and wanted to say hi. Are you hanging out here?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, yeah. It's my day off, and I promised him I'dÃ¢â¬ ¦do some yard work.Ã¢â¬ Bastien, hovering invisibly nearby, got a kick out of that. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a great day for it,Ã¢â¬ she agreed. I supposed it was, in that crisply sunny sort of way that sometimes shows up in winter. At least we had no rain today. Ã¢â¬Å"What were you going to do? It looks like the lawn service took care of most of the leaves.Ã¢â¬ That it had. I tried to think of something superfluous that suburbanites wouldn't have already underpaid someone else to do. Ã¢â¬Å"I was going to plant some flowers.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh!Ã¢â¬ She clasped her hands together, brown eyes alight. Ã¢â¬Å"That's a great idea. Do you want some help?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"UhÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Beside me, Bastien nearly had a seizure. He nodded his head vigorously and mouthed the word reconnaissance. Yard work was the last thing I wanted to do on my day off, but now I'd gone and boxed myself in. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure. I don't really know what to do anyway.Ã¢â¬ That had to be the understatement of the year. Ã¢â¬Å"Let me grab my coat, and we'll go to my favorite nursery,Ã¢â¬ she squealed. Ã¢â¬Å"This is going to be fun.Ã¢â¬ She dashed back to her house, and I glared at Bastien. Ã¢â¬Å"I hate you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't I know it.Ã¢â¬ He clapped me on the back. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sure you have a green thumb somewhere, Fleur . If not, you can shape-shift one.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You owe me. Big time.Ã¢â¬ Jody drove us to some gardening place that looked like a maze of greenery to me. Actually, greenery wasn't quite the right word. Many of the trees and plants had lost leaves, turning brown and yellow as winter deepened. A maze of vegetation, I guess. Ã¢â¬Å"They're still alive,Ã¢â¬ she told me, assessing plants with an expert eye. Ã¢â¬Å"Although, this isn't exactly the best time to do plantings. Still, we should be able to manage something since the ground isn't too hard yet.Ã¢â¬ I grimaced. Ã¢â¬Å"Sounds dirty.Ã¢â¬ She laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"How'd you get slated for this?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My brother doesn'tÃ¢â¬ ¦always think things through. And he's pretty persuasive when he wants to be.Ã¢â¬ And annoying. And pushy. Ã¢â¬Å"I can see that. He's pretty cute too. Bet he gets women to do anything he wants.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You have no idea.Ã¢â¬ This made her smile again. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, hang in there. Once you get started with this kind of stuff, you get into it. And it's not that dirty. You want dirty, I'll tell you about Guatemala someday.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When were you in Guatemala?Ã¢â¬ Whoa. Somehow I managed her circle picking places like Malibu and Paris for vacations. Ã¢â¬Å"When I was in the Peace Corps.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You were in the Peace Corps?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yup. When I was younger.Ã¢â¬ I stared after her as she continued checking out the selection. Jody had been in the Peace Corps and worked as an art teacher. She was clearly talented creatively. She was smart and had a good personality. How the hell had she gotten mixed up with Dana? We ended up buying several plants she called Christmas Roses, plus some bulbs she warned might or might not come up in the spring. Once back at Bastien's, we bundled up in coats and gloves and set to digging in his front yard. I saw him peek out the window and wave at me at one point; I stuck my tongue out at him when Jody wasn't looking. Jody was only too happy to tell me about her past. I'd ask the occasional clarifying question, and she'd then go on for a while more. I listened, commenting occasionally, and Ã¢â¬â as much as I hated to admit it Ã¢â¬â found the afternoon passing pleasantly. She had been right: garden work wasn't so bad once you started. Inevitably, her chatter turned to the CPFV, and she both surprised and relieved me by admitting some discontent. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean,Ã¢â¬ she was saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I stand by them. Absolutely. It's just sometimes, I wish we were doing things in different ways. Ã¢â¬Å" I looked up, happy to take a break from hacking at the hard ground. Ã¢â¬Å"What kinds of things?Ã¢â¬ She pursed her cute lips together. Ã¢â¬Å"I guessÃ¢â¬ ¦likeÃ¢â¬ ¦we spend a lot of time telling people what to do and what not to do, you know? Like we're trying to help them lead better lives, and I think that's good. After all, Dana says an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.Ã¢â¬ Ugh. Clich?Ã ¦ anyone? Ã¢â¬Å"But I also wish we were doing something for those that need help now. Do you know how many families in this area don't have enough to eat? It'd be great if we could work with local food banks to do something about that Ã¢â¬â especially with the holidays coming up. Or likeÃ¢â¬ ¦we do a lot to help teens make smart choices, but I visited some shelters for girls that are already in trouble. They've run away. They're pregnant. Dana says they're lost causes, butÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You don't think so?Ã¢â¬ I asked gently. She had stopped digging too and stared absentmindedly at the bulb she held. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't think anyone's beyond help. But DanaÃ¢â¬ ¦I mean, she's so smart. She knows more than me about this stuff. I trust what she says.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing wrong with questioning.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, I suppose. It's just, well, she's been a good friend to me.Ã¢â¬ Her eyes focused on something not here, something far away and long ago. Ã¢â¬Å"A couple years ago, Jack and I had some, you know, problems. I mean, it happens right? No relationship's perfect.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ I agreed grimly. Ã¢â¬Å"Anyway, she helped me work through that. I feel sort ofÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Obligated?Ã¢â¬ Jody fumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"I-I don't know. I guess so. Sometimes, she's hard to knowÃ¢â¬ ¦like she can surprise you with things you never saw coming. Other timesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She shook her head and gave a nervous laugh. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know what I'm saying. She's wonderful. The most amazing person I've ever met. She does so much good.Ã¢â¬ She changed the subject abruptly after that, and I let her. We moved on to happier topics, and I found myself laughing along with her and enjoying her company. At one point, I ran into Bastien's kitchen and made us hot chocolate. We drank it outside as we finished the last of our plants, finally sitting back and admiring our handiwork. Despite my initial misgivings, I kind of liked accomplishing something so tangible. Ã¢â¬Å"Look,Ã¢â¬ said Jody. Ã¢â¬Å"Dana just came home.Ã¢â¬ Sure enough, Dana's Explorer pulled in next door, and a moment later, the woman herself strolled over. She graced us with one of those ice-bitch smiles. Ã¢â¬Å"This looks cozy.Ã¢â¬ Jody's earlier bubbly nature seemed somewhat diminished. Ã¢â¬Å"Tabitha needed some gardening help, so I came over.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wasn't that nice of you.Ã¢â¬ Dana gave the other woman a look I couldn't interpret, save that disapproval and possibly anger underscored it. Although I had been arguing to the contrary with Bastien, I got the feeling I might truly have pissed off Dana more than I'd suspected, creating the bad impression he kept accusing me of. It looked like Dana may even have voiced her opinions of me to Jody. I watched Jody's face pass through a range of emotions. I felt pretty confident there was more iron in there than her surface showed, and for a half a second she looked as though she might lash out in defiance. Then, after a moment's eye contact, she looked away, backing down. Perhaps I should have simpered just then and tried to weasel into Dana's good graces, but mostly I felt angry at what I perceived as her chastisement. She had no right to do that Jody. Ã¢â¬Å"It was incredibly nice,Ã¢â¬ I said sharply. Ã¢â¬Å"Jody's one of those rare, honestly good people in the world. Not just one who pretends to be. But of course you already know that.Ã¢â¬ Jody blushed furiously, and the edges of Dana's smile twitched a little. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. Yes, she is. How's your ankle doing?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good as new.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Glad to hear it.Ã¢â¬ We all waited in awkward silence. I decided I would wait out Dana this time, no matter how scary that stare. She, of course, was a master of waiting, so it wasn't a surprise when Jody was the one who cracked. Honestly, I couldn't blame her. Ã¢â¬Å"Well. Jack should be home soon. I should get going.Ã¢â¬ I stood up with her and helped her gather the tools. We all exchanged a few more stiff remarks, then parted ways. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened? What happened?Ã¢â¬ exclaimed Bastien when I came back inside. Ã¢â¬Å"I saw Dana out there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing new. Jody's a saint; Dana's a bitch. I hope you hurry up and get this done with.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Damn it, I'm trying! I don't suppose you found out anything useful?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not reallyÃ¢â¬ ¦although, I think Jody knows something about Dana. Something juicy enough even for you. She wouldn't tell me exactly what.Ã¢â¬ The incubus clung to this piece of information like a dog with a bone. Ã¢â¬Å"You've got to find out what! Call her up tomorrow. Take her to lunch.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus, Bastien. I like her, but I'm not doing your work for you. This is your show, remember? Besides, I do have a life, you know. Ã¢â¬Å" He scowled. Ã¢â¬Å"That's up for debate.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you so worked up about this Dana thing anyway? I mean, I'd love to see her fall, but the way you're actingÃ¢â¬ ¦I don't know. It's totally pushing you over the edge.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why shouldn't I be worked up? Just because you don't play the soul game anymore doesn't mean the rest of us don't have an eye on our careers.Ã¢â¬ I knew Bastien too well not to suspect there was some other reason we were fighting all the time. Ã¢â¬Å"And that's all it is, huh? Just good old-fashioned American work ethic?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ he said stiffly. Ã¢â¬Å"There's nothing wrong with that.Ã¢â¬ We locked matching Hunter gazes, and I tried to let him know with my eyes that I knew there was more than he was telling me. He stared stonily back, refusing to open up. At last, I shook my head, not wanting to be drawn into any more fighting. Ã¢â¬Å"Mind if I use your hot tub?Ã¢â¬ I asked instead. He gestured toward the back patio. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure. Have the run of the house. Use me and go.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You're being childish.Ã¢â¬ Not answering, he went off to watch TV. I let myself out through the patio and flipped open the hot tub's lid. Hot steam poured out, and I sighed with pleasure. It felt downright decadent after being out in the cold all day. Glancing around, I took in the vine-covered privacy trellises. There were three of them with a person-sized gap between each one. Dusk was rapidly giving way to darkness, and I felt pretty obscured from the neighbors. I stripped off my clothes and tentatively put a foot in the tub. Hot. Very hot. I yanked it out, then waited a minute before trying again. Slowly, I eased the rest of me in, bit by bit. When I was finally submerged from the neck down, I exhaled happily and leaned my head back against the edge. Fantastic. I kicked on the bubbles and closed my eyes. Suddenly, I found myself able to forget it all. Doug. The guy from the club. Dana. Seth. Well, maybe not Seth entirely. But I could forget the bad things, at least. When my hair had curled from the steam and sweat was rolling down my forehead, I stood up and sat on the tub's edge, letting the air dry me off. A lot of people don't understand outdoor hot tubs, but I preferred them to indoor ones. Nothing can match that temperature change. Once cooled, I sat back in the water, ready to repeat the process. I could have done this all night and been perfectly happy. I'd only been back in the water a few minutes when I heard a twig snap from somewhere nearby. It was like a bad-horror-movie clich?Ã ¦, butterrifying nonetheless. I shot out of the water, splashing everywhere, scrambling over the side as I heard a rustle of leaves and brush. Ã¢â¬Å"Bastien!Ã¢â¬ I yelled, running back into the house. He tore into the room, face pale and alarmed. Ã¢â¬Å"What's the matter?Ã¢â¬ I backed away from the patio, pointing. Ã¢â¬Å"There's someone out there. Ã¢â¬Å" Nothing could really hurt me, of course, but being immortal does not relieve a person of instinctual fear and caution. There'd be time to feel embarrassed about girly behavior later. His eyes cut to the patio, and he moved outdoors without any hesitation to look around. My knight. I waited in the kitchen, dripping water onto the wood floor, my heart still thumping. He returned a few minutes later and shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"There's nothing out there. You imagined it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. It was there. I heard it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then it was an animal.Ã¢â¬ He suddenly smirked. Ã¢â¬Å"Or maybe Reese getting a thrill.Ã¢â¬ When I didn't laugh at the joke, he approached and pulled me to him, unconcerned about getting his clothes wet. My body trembled against his. Ã¢â¬Å"It's all right,Ã¢â¬ he murmured. Ã¢â¬Å"You're okay. You're safe.Ã¢â¬ He pulled off his blazer and wrapped it around me. It was too big, but it felt wonderful. I huddled against him, still too fazed to shape-shift some more substantial clothing on. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on, Fleur .You know I'm here. You know I won't let anything happen to you.Ã¢â¬ The animosity we'd built from our fight went away, and suddenly we were back to normal again. He took me upstairs to his bedroom, still keeping his arm around me. I shape-shifted dry as we walked and turned back into my Georgina self. Changing into his usual shape as well, he pulled me down to the bed with him so my head rested on his chest. A lot of immortals don't understand the way incubi and succubi relate to each other. We tend to touch a lot, in ways that are small but still intimate by most standards. I'd been accused many times of being sexually involved with Bastien Ã¢â¬â or someone else Ã¢â¬â over the years. Yet the truth was that in all of our time together, he and I had never actually had anything romantic happen. We were close, physically and emotionally, but that came from friendship, nothing more. Because honestly, when you spent most of your existence giving complete strangers access to your body, it seemed stupid not to enjoy physical bonding with those you actually cared about. And again, by physical bonding, I just meant small things, not even those that resulted in orgasm or a PG rating. Petting. Stroking. Massaging. Kissing here and there. They were all signs of closeness. We needed them, I think, to keep ourselves sane with the way we lived. And there was a certain comfort to knowing that in doing this, the other person got exactly the same thing in return. I could not have had such an equitable emotional relationship if I'd sought a similar physical exchange with, say, Hugh or the vampires. It would have meant something different to them. Which was why I could lay there in Bastien's bed, half naked, with my body twisted around his. We laughed under the blankets, reminiscing about past times when we had to sleep in similar Ã¢â¬â but less comfortable Ã¢â¬â ways. Ship cabins. Narrow boardinghouse beds. Campsites along country roads. Then too, we'd huddled together for warmth and security. I ended up spending the whole night with him. He held me the entire time in as gentlemanly a way as Seth might have. But with Bastien, I didn't toss and turn with worry all night over what damage one careless touch might do. It was the best night of sleep I'd had in weeks. When I returned home the next day, I called Seth and asked him if he'd been at the bookstore yesterday. He verified that he had and that Doug had behaved himself. Ã¢â¬Å"He was kind of goofy and chipper but nothing like that day.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good. I hope that's the end of it.Ã¢â¬ There was an awkward pause, and then Seth asked, too casually: Ã¢â¬Å"Were you out again last night? I called you pretty late and didn't get an answer. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, yeah. I stayed at Bastien's all night.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh.Ã¢â¬ Silence. Ã¢â¬Å"It's not what you think,Ã¢â¬ I hastily assured him. Ã¢â¬Å"We just slept. Perfectly platonic. Just likeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You and me?Ã¢â¬ Silence. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing happened. He's like a brother to me. Honest. He's the last person you should be jealous of.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not jealous. Not exactly. But if you say it's nothing, then it's nothing. I didn't mean to sound like I was accusing you of lying. I know you wouldn't do that.Ã¢â¬ I thought about oral sex at the dance club and my bare skin pressed against Bastien's. I might not lie, but I didn't always tell Seth the whole truth either. A few days later, Seth and I went to another Nocturnal Admission concert. Doug and I had worked together all week in a civil manner, if not exactly a friendly one. Seth picked me up at my place and again could only stare in wonder at my appearance. I'd gone out hunting with Bastien last night Ã¢â¬â against my better judgment Ã¢â¬â and had taken another victim. The glamour hadn't quite diminished yet, and I would have looked hot even in a burlap bag. So, I suppose wearing the kind of dress I did was just outright mean. It was a little slip of a dress in gray cotton jersey, with a ribbon threaded around it that tied just under my breasts. The thin-strapped, V-necked top showed lots of cleavage; the skirt hung soft and drapey to just above my knee. It was like a winter sundress. Seth put his arms around me and nuzzled my neck. Ã¢â¬Å"You never fail to surprise me. I always think I know what to expect with you. Then I actually see you, andÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He couldn't finish, but his eyes did it for him. They slid up and down my body, making my insides melt. Throw me on the bed and take me, I begged silently. Out loud I said, Ã¢â¬Å"We should get going.Ã¢â¬ At the concert, Nocturnal Admission performed as spectacularly as last time. Their following had increased, and people packed every square inch of the place. I had trouble seeing the stage but could hear every golden note. Fortunately, I got to see plenty of Doug later. The venue had let him use the place for another wild, post-concert party. Adoring women Ã¢â¬â and several men Ã¢â¬â clung flirtatiously to him and the other band members. Doug hugged me when he saw me, arranged for someone to make me a decent drink, and acted as though nothing had happened between us. I guessed I was glad to set aside the hard feelings, but now that I knew what to blame his behavior on, his bright and wild demeanor unnerved me. Casey showed up at one point, still looking a bit gaunt, but obviously on the mend. From across the room, I watched her tentatively approach Alec. He'd been talking to Wyatt the guitar player and turned to give her an obviously forced and fake smile. I couldn't hear the conversation, but the message came through loud and clear. She wanted to talk to him, to get his attention in some way, and he was blatantly snubbing her. I could see him shaking his head as she spoke, an almost desperate look on her face. Finally, he simply walked away, leaving her staring and upset. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to go over there and punch him,Ã¢â¬ I told Seth. Ã¢â¬Å"No, you don't. It's their business, not yours.Ã¢â¬ I turned on him. Ã¢â¬Å"Damn it, Seth! How can you always be so placid and nonconfrontational? Don't you stand up for anything?Ã¢â¬ He regarded me coolly. If he was surprised or offended by my outburst, he didn't show it. Ã¢â¬Å"I stand up for plenty of things. I just know when to pick my battles, that's all. So should you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You realize he slept with her and then turned around and dropped her cold. He may have even used sinister ways to do it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Believe me, I'm not condoning that, but Casey's got to be the one to say something. Otherwise, it's just you making accusations and starting a scene.Ã¢â¬ I scowled, half agreeing with him but still wishing I could help. Looking around, I couldn't see her anymore, which was probably just as well. With any luck, she'd gone home and would swear off the company of men for a while. Seth left for the bathroom, and almost the moment he was gone, Alec sidled up. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, Georgina. You look hot.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬ I said. I angled my body away, hoping he'd get the signal I wasn't interested. He was lucky I didn't just turn around and deck him. Ã¢â¬Å"You're, like, the best-looking woman in here tonight.Ã¢â¬ Whether that was actually true or not, I knew the life-force surplus made me the most attractive. There was a difference. Eyeing Alec, I suddenly toyed with the idea of returning his flirtation and sleeping with him. I rather liked the idea of seeing him sprawled out unconscious and sick somewhere. Nah. On second thought, considering he was such a sleazebag, I probably wouldn't steal enough energy to do much more than wind him. Ã¢â¬Å"You drinking those vodka gambits again?Ã¢â¬ he asked, still pushing the act. Ã¢â¬Å"Gimlets,Ã¢â¬ I corrected. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, the bar can make anything if you want something different. And there's weed everywhere. I think I saw Corey with acid too.Ã¢â¬ This guy just couldn't stop trying to fuck women over. He didn't care how he did it. Seth showed up just then, and I turned to him with a dazzling smile. Ã¢â¬Å"Nice talking to you Alec,Ã¢â¬ I said breezily, taking Seth's arm. Ã¢â¬Å"See you around.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What was that about?Ã¢â¬ asked Seth, once we were out of earshot. Ã¢â¬Å"That asshole was trying to pick me up again. Right after turning away Casey. God, I hate him. He was trying the usual stuff too. Trying to push more drinks on me. Telling me how hot I was.Ã¢â¬ Seth leaned his face toward mine. Ã¢â¬Å"You are hot.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stop that. You're giving me funny ideas.Ã¢â¬ He continued holding me close. I really needed to wait two days before seeing him after a fix. Ã¢â¬Å"Ever wonder how far I could kiss you on the lips?Ã¢â¬ he asked. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, I can somewhat substantially kiss your cheek and neck, right? Your lips thoughÃ¢â¬ ¦well, those have to be quick, brushing kind of kisses. Too much intensity and tongue with your mouth is right out. So, I figure there must be a middle ground.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Have you been drinking?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just thinking, that's all.Ã¢â¬ The rapture from my glow was reflected in his face. Forgetting about anyone we knew seeing us, I let him lean his mouth toward my own. Ever so gently, his lips touched mine. Not a family-type slip of a kiss, nor a saliva-exchanging deep kiss either. It was like a caress. His lips slowly stroked my lips, his tongue just barely tracing the contours of my mouth. Electricity ran from my head to my toes and tried to run back up again, but it got delayed between my legs. Seth stepped away. Ã¢â¬Å"Anything bad happen?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ I breathed. Ã¢â¬Å"But I think we need to conduct several repeat experiments, just to make sure.Ã¢â¬ Suddenly, from across the room, we heard whoops and cheers, followed by a terrific crashing sound and gasps of alarm. Without conscious communication, Seth and I moved as one to see what had happened. Doug lay in a heap on the floor in front of the stage, laughing hysterically. Ã¢â¬Å"What's going on?Ã¢â¬ I asked Corey. His eyes were heavily dilated, and I remembered Alec saying the bass player had acid. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a new Olympic sport. Stage-table High Jumps.Ã¢â¬ Following his gaze, I saw a table set up on the stage. About fifteen feet away, on the floor by Doug, was an overturned table. I looked back and forth. Ã¢â¬Å"Did he try to jump from that table to that one?Ã¢â¬ Corey cackled. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure did. Shit. He almost made it. Caught the edge on his way down.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He could have broken his leg,Ã¢â¬ muttered Seth in disgust. Ã¢â¬Å"Or worse.Ã¢â¬ Doug seemed to be okay. Some solicitous women in tight shirts were helping him stand. He caught my eye and laughed harder. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't look so panicked, Kincaid. I'm fineÃ¢â¬ ¦but if you want to make sure, you can come kiss me too and make it all better.Ã¢â¬ He winked at Seth, and others laughed with him, without knowing why. I was soon forgotten as more adoring people swarmed in. Seth and I retreated. Ã¢â¬Å"What was he thinking?Ã¢â¬ I fretted. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean, he's always doing crazy acrobatic stuff on stage, but he had to have known he couldn't make that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If he's not thinking straight, there's no telling what he believes. Drugs,ll do that. Give you a sense of invincibility.Ã¢â¬ I reminded myself to look up those drug names Cody had suggested. I didn't know if it'd do any good, but it'd at least make me think I was doing something. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey,Ã¢â¬ I exclaimed, pulling Seth to an abrupt stop. Ã¢â¬Å"It's him again.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That guy talking to Alec. The weird gothic, male-model-type guy.Ã¢â¬ Seth followed my gesture. Way on the other side of the place, near the bar, Alec and the man I'd seen at the earlier concert were having a heated argument. The GQ-poet guy looked stern and cold tonight, dampening his otherwise suave and polished looks. Alec had a pleading look. The drummer gesticulated frantically, his face desperate and frightened. The other man shook his head sternly, face unyielding. He waved a hand toward the crowd and then said something to Alec. Alec's face paled, and he once more turned into a pitiful supplicant. The other man shook his head yet again, then strode off. He didn't approach us exactly, but he had to move in our direction to reach the exit. He was still a good fifty feet away and separated by walls of people when an odd, prickly feeling touched my skin. It was strange and discordant, yet sleek at the same time. It was almost like what I'd felt around Doug and the band, except that had been unidentifiable. This was clearly a person's signature. It was linked to that man, pulsing with sentience. I choked out a strangled sound and quickly stepped back out of range. Pulling Seth with me, I threw my arms around him and kissed his neck. As I did, I watched out of the corner of my eye as the strange man froze and jerked his head around, looking out over the crowd. He had felt me too. His eyes passed over us several times, but we drew no especial focus. We were just another couple getting hot and heavy. I tensed, waiting for him to come closer and try to sense me again. Without knowing why, I didn't want him to find me. He scanned a bit longer before giving up and continuing his retreat. When he had left, I relaxed and leaned into Seth. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬ ¦?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That man that was talking to Alec,Ã¢â¬ I said, still in shock. Ã¢â¬Å"He's an immortal.Ã¢â¬ Seth's eyebrows rose. Ã¢â¬Å"Really? What kind? Angel? Demon?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"None of the above. He's not one of mine.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean not one of yours?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not all immortals are part of the heaven and hell system. There are a lot of other creatures walking the world: nymphs, orisha, oniÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You do realize you've just thrust me into a theological quandary likely to keep me awake at night for years,Ã¢â¬ he joked. When I didn't answer, he turned serious. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. So what kind was he?Ã¢â¬ I shook my head. Ã¢â¬Å"That's the thing. I don't know. I don't know what he was exactly.Ã¢â¬